Introduction: Gestational diabetes is a common complication during pregnancy, affecting maternal and fetal outcomes. Considering the increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes around the world, in the present study, we aimed to assess fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnant diabetic women.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, 85 women with gestational diabetes (gestational age > 28 weeks), admitted to the maternity ward, were enrolled, along with 160 women with a normal pregnancy, who met the inclusion criteria (i.e., no history of diabetes, chronic diseases, endocrine disorders, or steroid use). By using a questionnaire, the required information, i.e., demographic data, medical information, gestational age, Apgar score, and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum hemorrhage, macrosomia, stillbirth, and hypoglycemia, was recorded. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS.
Results: The mean age of diabetic and healthy mothers was reported to be 30.4±5.01 and 27.2±4.03 years, respectively; a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (P<0.02). Also, the mean systolic and diastolic pressure, body mass index, and cesarean section were more prevalent in diabetic mothers (P=0.01); the two groups were significantly different in this regard. Furthermore, fetal complications such as macrosomia, stillbirth, and hypoglycemia were more common among diabetic subjects, compared to their healthy counterparts (P<0.01).
Conclusion: Among maternal and fetal complications, gestational hypertension and cesarean section were more common in diabetic cases. Also, fetal complications such as macrosomia, stillbirth, and hypoglycemia were more prevalent in newborns of diabetic women. Therefore, implementation of educational programs, screening of diabetic mothers, and attention to the associated complications seem essential. Overall, all these complications highlight the importance of gestational diabetes prevention.